TAX, SOCIETY & CULTURE

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55 documentaries and one drama: A list of films about tax #taxflix

Published Jul 22, 2019 - Follow author Allison: - Permalink

A discussion about tax documentaries unfolded on twitter over the past few days, dubbed #taxflix, HT @alvinmosioma.

I threaded a list that I had been keeping for some time, and the twitter discussion resulted in some key additions so I decided to upload the contents of my spreadsheet to this public google sheet where anyone can view or add to the list, but for those who simply want the current list (arranged by year), it is below.

The ones available on youtube are also available via this playlist.

  1. The New Spirit, 1942, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=00u6qUelp6c
  2. Spirit of ‘43, 1943, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rQsOOfU59SM
  3. The Sloane Affair, 1972,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hamUiNR3Cl0
  4. The Polite Conspiracy, 1984,https://www.bfi.org.uk/films-tv-people/4ce2b759c3b7d
  5. A Taxing Woman, 1987, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YE8n9ybN5Yk
  6. Death and Taxes, 1993, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EHStX0iyyMk
  7. An Act of Conscience, 1997,http://www.turningtide.com/aoc.htm
  8. Life and Debt, 2001, http://www.lifeanddebt.org
  9. Tax Revolts, 2001, URL unknown
  10. NOW with Bill Moyers: A Question of Fairness, 2003, URL unknown
  11. Sealand: The Mystery Solved, 2003, Part 1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OhrzXYmxFdw and Part 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cktpmy-iiJQ
  12. Tax Me if You Can (US version), 2004, http://vimeo.com/15101824
  13. Global Capital Market: Risks and Rewards, 2007, http://proxy.library.mcgill.ca/login?url=http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=13209&xtid=34993&loid=37126
  14. Inside the IRS, 2007, URL unknown
  15. I.O.U.S.A, 2008, http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=270867650600562607#
  16. Tax Me if You Can (Australia Version), 2008, http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2008/20081006_tax/interviews.htm
  17. Taxing the Poor, 2008, http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/415/video.html
  18. The End of Poverty, 2008,https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x22eynh
  19. Rising Tide, 2008, URL unknown
  20. Tax Me If You Can (UK version), 2009, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sWmlUfknTZk&feature=youtube_gdata_player
  21. Ten Trillion and Counting, 2009, https://www.pbs.org/video/frontline-ten-trillion-and-counting/
  22. We’re Not Broke, 2009, http://www.hulu.com/watch/442931
  23. Your Tax Dollars at Work, 2009, https://wetheeconomy.com/films/your-tax-dollars-at-work/
  24. Deficits: Taxing the Rich, 2010, https://www.cbsnews.com/video/deficits-taxing-the-rich/
  25. Dispatches: How the Rich beat the Tax man, 2010, http://www.channel4.com/programmes/dispatches/episode-guide/series-72/episode-1
  26. I.O.U.S.A. Solutions, 2010, http://www.pgpf.org/Media/Video/2010/09/iousa-solutions.aspx
  27. Inside the IRS, 2010, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Jzee0GKA3w (part 1)
  28. 60 minutes: The New Tax Havens, 2011, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MxgezC4KhXQ
  29. An Inconvenient Tax, 2011,http://vimeo.com/channels/aninconvenienttax
  30. Dazed & Confused | The Money Issue, 2011, https://vimeo.com/groups/4307/videos/21478777
  31. Heist: Who Stole the American Dream?, 2011, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nWh-G3MFkSA
  32. The American Tax Cheat, 2011,http://www.cnbc.com/id/42192642
  33. UK Uncut, 2011, http://vimeo.com/19432218
  34. Transfer pricing and tax havens, 2011, https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/taxes-topic/corporate-taxation/v/transfer-pricing-and-tax-havens
  35. While We Watch, 2012, http://www.whilewewatch.com/
  36. Dispatches: Secrets of the Taxman, 2012, http://www.channel4.com/programmes/dispatches/episode-guide/series-116/episode-1
  37. We’re Not Broke, 2012, http://www.filmsforaction.org/watch/were_not_broke_2012_free_on_hulu/
  38. Good Copper, Bad Copper, 2012, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uamzirLswjk
  39. Cash investigation S1E3: Les petits secrets des grandes entreprises, 2012, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zQqmQ3p42t4
  40. Frontline: The Untouchables, 2013, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/untouchables/
  41. How to Build a Country from Scratch, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/video/2013/02/04/opinion/100000002043729/how-to-build-a-country-from-scratch.html
  42. Inside Story : Tax avoidance: Legality vs morality, 2013, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5SpCyxwahEk
  43. Cash investigation S2E1: Le scandale de l'evasion fiscale: revelations sur les milliards qui nous manquent, 2013, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i5ZZO-HgZhE
  44. Tax Free Tour, 2013, https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=d4o13isDdfY
  45. Falciani's Tax Bomb: The Man Behind the Swiss Leaks, 2015, https://www.imdb.com/title/tt4480186/
  46. Offshore Banking / Tax Havens : Didn’t you know, you knew ?, 2016, https://vimeo.com/237409247
  47. Offshore: Elmer und das Bankgeheimnis, 2016, https://www.imdb.com/title/tt5520032/
  48. Cash investigation S4E7: Paradis fiscaux: le casse du siecle, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CsKH9tcvirw
  49. Paradis fiscale & Panama Papers, scandale d'évasion fiscale, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gg2sLRcByYA
  50. The Price We Pay, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tyGsFmmzGsA
  51. Global Witness | Paradise Papers: Time to investigate Glencore, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CfhEJugfCr0
  52. The Spider's Web: Britain's Second Empire, 2017, https://www.imdb.com/title/tt6483026/
  53. Cash investigation S6E3 Paradise Papers: au coeur d'in scandal mondial, 2017, https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x68vxeh
  54. Development Foregone, 2017,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OWS5nKGJkJk&feature=youtu.be
  55. Der Insider: #CumExFiles, 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J1XA320LiUk
  56. Reberth, 2018, https://www.imdb.com/title/tt8750660/ 




Tagged as: #taxflix films

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More Info + Better Analytics = Less Tax Evasion: Guest Post by Gaute Solheim

Published Apr 23, 2019 - Follow author Allison: - Permalink

There is little doubt that information is key to effective taxation, and that modern data collection systems are making tax administrators' (and in some ways, honest taxpayers') lives much easier.  I am personally wary of governments (or anyone) amassing all of the data gathering and analytic tools they might like, because I am concerned that life in the panopticon will not be tolerable for lots of reasons. My tolerance for leakage in taxpayer compliance to forestall the complete surveillance of all human activity by government may be higher or lower than others; I am not sure. But the following guest post by Gaute Solheim of the Norwegian Tax Administration gives a nice summary of the tax administrator's more optimistic view. Cross posted from the Surly Subgroup.

Do You Really Need More Information?

By Gaute Solheim, Senior Tax Advisor, Norwegian Tax Administration 

(Mr. Solheim writes in his individual capacity and does not purport to represent the views of the Norwegian Tax Administration.)
In a previous post, I explained with reference to the Cui 2017 paper on Third Party Information Reporting (TPIR) why I expect good quality TPIR, based on a primitive analysis of the human factor in corporate filings. When I started rereading Cui’s paper, I only read a few lines before a chapter heading from the CIA textbook “The Psychology of Intelligence Analysis” popped into my mind: Do you really need more information? That book contains a full chapter (starting on page 51) on how more information sometimes contributed nothing to the quality of the analysis, but was of immense help for the confidence of the analyst.
I will below make my argument for why the answer should be “yes” when it concerns the TPIR data mentioned by Cui in the paper, but it is a qualified yes. TPIR is a bit like cooking. Fantastic raw materials will not end up as gourmet meals on their own. You need a talented and skilled chef and a kitchen with the right tools, as well.
Having spent some time on capacity-building with less developed tax administrations than the Norwegian, I agree with Cui that establishing a TPIR machinery should not be the first priority in these countries. However, TPIR being the wrong starting point for some developing countries is not an argument for abstaining from it in Norway and other jurisdictions with better-resourced administrations. I will below state my case for why I find TPIR useful based on my observations working for the Norwegian Tax Administration (NTA) (which may of course differ from the opinions of the NTA itself).
My knowledge of U.S. or Canadian use of TPIR is limited, but there is a very fascinating story told in a paper by Keith Fogg about the work of the IRS agent Joe West. It is a story starting with an audit in the late eighties continuing into the nineties and ending with the IRS getting a summons for credit card information linking US taxpayers to bank accounts in the Caribbean. That information eliminated credit cards as an easy means of taxpayer access to evaded funds.
Norway was quick to copy and paste the IRS methodology. First as specific requested information. Then, a few years later, TPIR routines were in place, giving us digitally all the credit card transactions from financial institutions. The information was used in a large audit project identifying Norwegians with undeclared financial wealth in other jurisdictions. It did not take long before it was common knowledge among taxpayers that this modus operandi did not fly anymore. The value of this TPIR as a tool to uncover hidden wealth and income in foreign jurisdictions diminished quickly, as measured in volume of reassessments.
Warning: Do not use for tax evasion
Collection of TPIR is not without costs, and after some years, the extra revenue from reassessments probably did not cover the total cost of the collection of this dataset. One could then conclude that this was a big heap of worthless gigabytes. To me that would be flawed logic, like concluding that a fence is pointless if you never find anyone on the wrong side of it. TPIR done right is to a large extent automated audits. Taxpayers knowing that they will be selected for audit on specific issues are inclined to stay compliant or shift to another, more cumbersome, modus operandi like diamonds in a toothpaste tube (see here and here). The toothpaste modus operandi had a shorter life span than the credit card scheme, and then we got FATCA and CRS.
Calculating the value of TPIR as a mental fence keeping more taxpayers inside the compliance triangle would be a hard nut to crack. I will not even try, but I would be surprised if it was insignificant. The story starting with IRS agent Joe West auditing Dorchester Industries and owner Frank Wheaton Jr. in the eighties, and ending in Norway with a lot of TPIR data with few reassessments illustrates a life cycle. It started with tax authorities going out and collecting specific third-party information needed for cracking cases with serious tax evasion; it was later streamlined as part of the TPIR system; and it ended up as mental fences for tax compliance. Today, that specific TPIR has other analytical uses for the NTA as well.
Almost all the numbers needed for producing a correct tax return for the majority of personal taxpayers in Norway already exist digitally on some third party computer somewhere. The number of sources is much smaller than the number of taxpayers. Having a system of distributing digital numbers from a small number of sources to everyone, having everyone manually punch the same numbers into different kinds of software on their home computers, and then collect all these numbers—with all their typing mistakes—does not make sense to me. It did not make sense in 2010, either. For most Norwegian taxpayers, it has not made sense the last two decades.
The main use of TPIR in Norway today is to prepopulate individuals’ tax returns, which are then made available for the taxpayer for correction and amendments. All of this ensures that we may handle millions of tax returns untouched by humans, including auditing every single entry in most of them. The NTA can do this by relying on recycling of existing data established by the business sector as part of its recording of business transactions. Businesses do it on computers with software designed to handle these exchanges of information. It means that, as a taxpayer, I may go skiing this weekend instead of sitting indoors punching numbers into some tax program on a sunny winter weekend. I love it both as a taxpayer and from nine to five as a tax auditor.
A new deduction wanted by the Norwegian government illustrates why TPIR is the way to go. The government wants personal expenses for toll roads to be deductible from income. There is a logic behind that, but that’s not my focus. The public toll roads are 100% digital and all payments are linked to an identified person. To avoid double deductions, the gross toll road payment must be reduced by the amount each individual has reclaimed from his employer or deducted as business expenses. A large part of these toll payments sits as digital information on the servers of the employers.
The NTA’s way of thinking is that TPIR is our friend. The payments on cars registered to non-business people may be reported as TPIR from a few toll road operators. The correction for reclaimed or already deducted payments may be one more item in the existing TPIR filing from employers on each employee. We do not know at this stage what percentage of all the tax returns we may prepopulate with the correct deduction by using TPIR, but we are aiming very high. Designing the compliance program for this deduction without TPIR is not a tempting alternative.
Establishing the infrastructure needed for TPIR of a specific set of data is the main cost. The exchange itself is comparably very low cost if the software doing the job is well designed and integrated in the data systems of the reporting entities. Ask any tax manager, and they will tell you that tax auditors asking for information that the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software (which manages business processes and accounting) is already programmed to produce is a small burden compared to collecting ad hoc sets of data that the ERP is not programmed to report.
We could do targeted audits, waiting three to five years and launch an identical audit program, collecting the same dataset ad hoc, and then spend a lot of resources on sorting out all the mistakes and non-compliance uncovered by the audits. It does not make sense in 2019 to operate like this. It is much more cost efficient to do the work needed to design the software and needed infrastructure that ensures that there will be a steady flow of good quality TPIR.
Within the OECD, there is a program called SAF-T, Standard Audit File for Tax. The core of this is that businesses must run their accounting on software designed for exchange of data in a standard digital format. When this is implemented, my guess is that we will see a new drop in cost per gigabyte TPIR, and it will certainly reduce the taxpayer’s cost of handing over data in response to ad hoc requests. Portugal is at the forefront of using SAF-T, with ten years of experience, generating gigabytes of TPIR monthly on VAT transactions and much more (see here and here).
The constant expansion of what tax administrations receive as TPIR should also influence the more rational taxpayers. They now know that you never know what the next dataset will be. Would you engage in a toothpaste scheme if you knew that FATCA was two years away? What tax administration veil of ignorance will be the next to fall with the help of TPIR? It gets harder and harder for the taxpayer to rationalize away the risk of future exposure of presently hidden activity.
I will restate that TPIR is a superb ingredient in the hands of a skilled chef in a well-equipped kitchen, but add that you really need a close partnership with your suppliers to make it happen without prohibitive costs.
Yes, we really need more information.

Tagged as: analytics compliance data evasion governance tax policy theory

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What Kinds of Corporate Entities Evade Tax? The Human Factor in Third Party Info Reporting

Published Apr 15, 2019 - Follow author Allison: - Permalink

Under what circumstances should we expect corporate entities to evade tax? The following guest post by Gaute Solheim of the Norwegian Tax Administration posits that it is most likely when they are small, owner-operator gigs, and much less likely when they are giant multinationals. The rationale, drawn from insights about why third party reporting is vital in a self-reporting system, is that the bigger the company, the more people have to work cooperatively to engage in fraud, many of whom will be employees with no direct economic upside. Of course there must be exceptions--Enron comes to mind. But Solheim's observation is that the human self-interest that makes third party reporting an effective compliance tool also minimizes the frequency and scope of Enron-type evasion. Cross posted from the Surly Subgroup.
Gaute Solheim, Senior Tax Advisor, Norwegian Tax Administration
(Mr. Solheim writes in his individual capacity and does not purport to represent the views of the Norwegian Tax Administration.)
I happened to reread a paper by Wei Cui from 2017 on Third Party Information Reporting (TPIR) some weeks ago. Based on my own practical experience working for the Norwegian Tax Administration, I found it hard to agree with him on uselessness of TPIR. In this post, I will explain why I expect good quality in TPIR filing. I plan to write a later post on why TPIR is useful.
I will start with crediting Cui for outlining very well what I will call “the story of the corporate tax revenue collection machine.” He does a good job describing how the government has outsourced the bulk of the revenue collection to corporations. I would love to see papers adding empirical numbers to this description. My Norwegian perspective is a world of VAT, corporations withholding taxes on wages and delivering massive amounts of data used to prepopulate the personal tax filings. The way Cui describe the role of the corporations in the “tax revenue collection machine” is probably even more spot on for me than for a reader with a US perspective.
As I read Cui, he expect legal entities to cooperate sufficiently to ensure fairly good quality TPIR. He does some reasoning on why this is to be expected, but I did not find his arguments very convincing. This may be because for some years I have had a different line of reasoning ending with the same conclusion. What follows is based on material I used in a talk some ten years ago for my colleagues at the Large Taxpayer Office in Norway. The theme of that talk was why we found less evasion in our segment of taxpayers than what other tax auditors found when auditing smaller entities. I called the talk “The Human Factor in Tax Filing”. I believe the reasoning I used there also may explain high quality TPIR.
To make it clear: This is about tax evasion (or deliberately misreporting). Tax avoidance is a different beast.
I started out by observing that legal entities cannot write, and hence are unable to fill out their own tax returns. They need human beings to help them. My next observation was that you can split these “helpers” into two groups. Group one is humans with direct economic upside from evasion, typically the owner(s) of the entities. Group two is humans with no direct economic upside from evasion, typically employees without an owner interest. My third observation was that the influence these two groups had on the filings was strongly linked to the size of the entities. In the smallest one-person owner/manager entities, people with direct personal economic upside from evasion (group one) have a large influence on the numbers filed. In the largest multinational corporations, people with no personal direct economic upside from cheating (group two) do most of the work.
Based on these unsystematic observations of reality, I made the following diagram of my estimate of how the influence of people with economic upside from misreporting (red line) and those without (blue line) varies as a function of entity size. The vertical axis goes from zero control to a hundred percent. On the horizontal axis, each entity is counted as one.Capture1st.PNGI do not have empirical studies to back up any claim that the balance of influence between the two groups shift at a specific gross income or similar figure. If forced to make a guesstimate, I would, for Norway, say somewhere around USD 5 million, with big variations among business segments. I will, for the sake of simplicity, use USD 5 million as the crossing point.
Corporations with less than USD 5 million in revenue are by far the main bulk of the population. Based on this perspective, we would logically start wondering why all these entities represented by humans with incentives to cheat average to a compliance rate of 90% or better. This is the perspective I understand Cui is debating in the last half of his paper, and he formulated some explanations that did not fully convince me.
As a longtime tax auditor, the number of entities to me is an administrative problem. I’ve always measured my own work in money saved: How much of the tax gap did I manage to plug? To get this perspective on reality, I must change the unit of measurement on the horizontal axis from entities to dollars. Each entity claims a space equal to the share of the total government revenue collected or paid by that entity.Capture2nd.PNGSomething very interesting happens to the perspective when we change from entities to dollars: The main bulk of government revenue is collected, reported and paid by the small group of big entities where the people with no upside is in full control over the numbers reported.
I only have hard numbers for corporate income tax (CIT) in Norway to back up this perspective, but I am confident that it holds true in general. Sixty-five percent of all CIT in Norway is paid by entities with revenue higher than approximately USD 150 million. The corporations with billions in revenue and thousands of employees are few, but they represent the bulk of what matters. When we use this perspective—money—we see that individuals with no personal gain from non-compliance handle the main share of input to the revenue collection machine and TPIR. This is true whether the reports are on wages and taxes withheld from them, VAT, or the entities’ own corporate income tax.
There is another important human factor, the down side. I have observed legal entities with feelings only when someone employed by the entity has made a mistake and the mistake has become public. The public relation department will issue a statement telling the public “The entity is very sorry that a trusted person have failed to live up to the high ethical standards of the entity as explicitly laid out in internal memos, rules, etc.” Then they throw that someone under the bus. Everybody knows this.
Since everybody knows this, it would be strange if that knowledge did not shape the behavior of the people engaged in taking care of compliance tasks on behalf of the huge impersonal corporation. They have no personal gain and they know who the scapegoat will be.
Based on this rather simple analysis of the human factors involved, I am convinced that compliance and quality TPIR is what I in general should expect from large corporations. I do know from experience that in some particular settings this will not hold true, but the big picture is to expect compliance. I will now shift to the smaller entities.
Cui gives a few examples illustrating how the employer and the employee have a win-win scenario in misreporting (cheating). He leaves out some elements that I find very practical in real life. I must confess that a few times in my life it has happened that I was guilty of doing something qualifying at least for a fine. But I’ve never been tempted to do something that relied on recruiting a partner in crime. Somehow human nature realises without thinking too hard about it that conspiracy is on a different scale than a moment of weak ethics. If you do not figure it out on your own, the penal code makes that very clear.
The win-win situation described by Cui differs a lot from an owner/manager deciding to keep some income off the books. While you may do that alone as owner/manager, the Cui win-win may only be established by recruiting someone to take part in the scheme. In addition, the owner knows that employers and employees from time to time end up with conflicting interests. Lay-offs are but one example. From my limited knowledge of the US penal system and tax legislation, I have the impression that an employee deciding to inform the IRS about the misdeeds of a corporation may get much more lenient treatment than the corporation and the owner/manager of that corporation. As a hypothetical owner/manager, I would at least think twice.
This is not saying that this kind of collusion does not happen. It does, but the human factor and a simple risk analysis informs me that it should be more the exception than the rule. Undeclared income is a much more likely scenario in the small corporations than manipulated TPIR. This result is not produced by the integrity of the corporation, which I believe has none, but is what you expect from human beings when acting based on the incentives present in the situation. The sum of these very human choices is what we may call a compliant corporation, sending the tax authorities high-quality TPIR.
As Cui correctly observes, even high-quality TPIR is pointless if it does not contribute to something useful. Tax authorities are collectors of revenue, not of data points. Why I do not agree when Cui concludes that TPIR is not useful will be the theme for a later blog post.
And again: This was about evasion, not avoidance.

Tagged as: compliance guest post information institutions tax gap

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Lederman: Death, Taxes and a Beach Read

Published Mar 09, 2017 - Follow author Allison: - Permalink

Over at Surly Subgroup, Leandra Lederman has posted Death, Taxes, and a Beach Read, a review of a series of novels by Diane Kelly, a former CPA and tax attorney turned romance novelist who "had the pleasure of working with a partner later convicted of tax shelter fraud [and] served a stint as an Assistant Attorney General for the State of Texas under an AG who pled guilty to criminal charges related to the tobacco company lawsuits." Leandra told me about these books last week when I was in Bloomington, and I have never heard of them before, so it is fun to see her write them up. From her post:

It never occurred to me to blog about [the series] until I read the first page of “Death, Taxes, and Cheap Sunglasses” while on a plane, and saw a link with tax issues I frequently write about. The opening paragraph reads:
“I slid my gun into my purse, grabbed my briefcase, and headed out to my car. Yep, tax season was in full swing once again, honest people scrambling to round up their receipts, hoping for a refund or at least to break even. As a taxpayer myself, I felt for them. But as far as tax cheats were concerned, I had no sympathy. The most recent annual report indicated that American individuals and corporations had underpaid their taxes by $450 billion. Not exactly chump change. That’s where I came in.” 
I had just presented my latest tax compliance article, “Does Enforcement Crowd Out Voluntary Tax Compliance?” and here were tax gap figures showing up in a novel! ...
Leandra notes that of course the novel simplifies, referring to “underpaid”taxes: official tax gap measurements by the IRS (see e.g. 2006; 2012) include late payment and filing/reporting failures. Leandra continues:
The heroine of this "romantic mystery series" is CPA Tara Holloway, who's described as "kicking ass, taking social security numbers, and keeping the world safe for honest taxpayers." She's a Special Agent with the IRS's Criminal Investigation Division.... 
Diane Kelly takes a few liberties with what Tara can get away with. The acknowledgments in “Death, Taxes, and Peach Sangria” include the following statement: “To the IRS special agents, thank you for sharing your fascinating world with me and for all you do on behalf of honest taxpayers. Please forgive Tara for being such a naughty agent and breaking the rules.” 
Leandra recommends readers start with the first novel in the series, Death, Taxes, and a French Manicure. But if Tara's mission is to close the tax gap, is it ok to buy the book on Amazon?

Tagged as: tax gap

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Analysis of Canada's Tax Gap Pre-Study

Published Jul 26, 2016 - Follow author Allison: - Permalink

Further to my last post on the newly released Tax Gap study by the Canada Revenue Agency, the following comes from guest blogger Iain Campbell (ARC, UK):

I hope this comment is not too long but I’ve been following Tax Gap discussions for so long that it’s hard to pass by the chance to comment!

Background
This is an interesting development. Writing from the UK I’m not in regular contact with developments in Canadian tax administration. But I do recall there has been some entertainment over the Tax Gap, with the Parliamentary Budget Officer asking for the CRA to do some work on it - and being rebuffed.

In fact, the CRA has not been keen on preparing a Tax Gap analysis. In 2002 it reported that attempting to estimate overall levels of reporting non-compliance such as the ‘tax gap’ or the total amount of smuggling activity was fraught with difficulty. (CRCA Performance report for the period ending 31 March 2002.) Ten years later the CRA were still not convinced. At the start of 2013 they told the PBO:

The CRA later pointed out “the significant debate about the precision, accuracy and utility of any methodology to calculate the tax gap”. It drew attention to critical comments from the UK Treasury Select Committee, as well as the fact of 52 tax administrations surveyed by the IRS, 33 did not produce one, and the high costs of doing so. (CRA, PBO Information Request IR0102: tax gap estimates, letter 20 March 2013,] and PBO Information Request IR0102: tax gap estimates, letter 1 August 2013.) In 2014 the PBO even threatened to take legal action in order to compel production.
But in the recent election there was a promise to undertake such a study, ending this long standing reluctance to follow the example of other countries, including the USA and UK.  And following the Panama Papers the Revenue Minister said in January a tax gap study would be done. The new Canadian study comprises a 31pp paper on a conceptual study of the Canadian tax gap and an 11pp study on the Canadian GST/HST, which gives a gap of 5.5% in 2000 and 6.5% in 2014. (It explicitly references the decision announced by the Minister of National on 11 April.)

Basis of study – what’s in and what’s out
The conceptual study does, to an outsider, seem to spend a lot of time in not saying a great deal. It seems to add qualification to qualification, caveat after caveat, so that at times I wondered if the CRA really wanted to publish anything at all. Gus O’Donnell is the UK civil servant who wrote the Report that led to the UK Customs and Excise combining with the Inland Revenue to form HM Revenue and Customs. In that Report he surely got it down to a few words: “Making estimates of the tax gap is methodologically and empirically difficult, although easier for indirect taxes where tax can typically be related to consumption. Direct tax gaps are particularly difficult to estimate because the aggregate figures for income, for example, are built on tax data.”

The CRA's conceptual study refers a lot to the HMRC papers and policies on calculating the Tax Gap. But in some of the key areas it dances around what might be difficult decisions e.g., whether to report the gross tax gap, or, as in the UK, the gap after action to tackle non-compliance.

Avoidance
More controversially, the UK includes tax avoidance.  This is a good illustration of its overall approach.


On the other hand, academics and members of the accountancy profession have argued the opposite, that any estimate should not include avoidance as referenced by the “spirit of the law”. For example, during a Treasury Select Committee Hearing on The Administration and Effectiveness of HMRC, Judith Freedman (Professor of Tax Law, Oxford University) commented “I really take issue with the spirit of the law part, because either you have law or you don’t have law and the law has to state what it is.”

The Canadian paper discusses this option and concludes “the appropriate treatment of tax avoidance is less clear”. It seems Canada has decided to not include avoidance in its definition: “In general the CRA’s approach to the tax gap encompasses non-compliance related to non-filing, non-registration (in the case of GST/HST), errors, under-payment, non-payment, and unlawful tax evasion” (p29).  There seems to be no explicit position on avoidance but, although I doubt it will happen, “under-payment” is potentially broad enough to include under-payment via avoidance.

Other “Gaps”
Another area the study did not address is what the IMF and EU call the “tax policy gap”. I agree with this decision (which mirrors the UK). The IMF would widen the definition and use of the Tax Gap approach. It suggests including the effects of policy choices that lead to reduced revenues. In a study on the UK Tax Gap it refers to the impact of compliance issues on revenue as “the compliance gap” and the revenue loss attributable to provisions in tax laws that allow an exemption, a special credit, a preferential rate of tax, or a deferral of tax liability, as the “policy gap” (para 68).  As part of this they recommend tax avoidance schemes deemed legal through litigation should be considered part of the policy gap, not the compliance gap, and this distinction should be made clear.

A similar point was made by an EU report on VAT. They suggested that a possible link between the policy and the compliance gaps, since using the reliefs and allowances intended by policy could make compliance more difficult. “Reducing the policy gap may often be the simplest and most effective way to reduce the compliance gap. “ (p21)

In my view these kinds of proposals are likely to be very complex, perhaps contentious, and hard to administer. It seems a sensible decision to not refer to them or suggest their inclusion.

Then there are the base erosion issues where tax is avoided through the use of legal structures that make use of mismatches between domestic and international tax, e.g. permanent establishments. The Canadian study nods in the direction of BEPS and then passes by.

What’s the point of working out a Tax Gap?
But putting aside these sorts of issues, or whether “top-down” targeting is better than “bottom-up”, does the size of the hidden or “informal” economy predict the level of GST/VAT underpayment (or is it the other way around?), perhaps the  big $64K question is whether any of this means anything. If there is no clear agreement on the numbers, how they are calculated and their reliability, then is there are any point in preparing them?

The very concept of the tax gap is not universally agreed to be a useful analytical or strategic lever. Apart from the earlier Canadian reluctance, the Australians were slow to go down this road. UK Parliamentarians have been less than keen. In 2012 the Treasury Select Committee said they thought it was essentially a waste of time and resources. Worse, they feared it would misdirect HMRC away from ensuring every taxpayer paid the right amount of tax. Such fears have not died. The current TSC is examining UK corporation tax. Their early work involved scoping the problem and they heard some evidence on the tax gap. Andrew Tyrie (the Chair) seemed less than enthused at the very concept.

I think it has merits. But it ought not to be elevated to some shibboleth. It is one high-level measure of how successfully legislation is being applied, use of resources, etc.  The UK Government’s official position is that that “thinking about the tax gap forces the department to focus attention on the need to understand how non-compliance occurs and how the causes can be addressed—whether through tailored assistance, simpler legislation, redesigned processes or targeted interventions. Measuring the tax gap helps us to understand whether increasing returns from compliance activity reflect improved effectiveness or merely a decrease in voluntary compliance.”

The Canadian paper says broadly the same things (pp22-24). It talks of providing insight into the overall health of the tax system, of understanding the composition and scale of non-compliance, but warns of their limitations.

If that is how it used then I think it is a useful aid to policy making and how robust is the assurance being provided by the tax administration.


Tagged as: Canada tax gap tax policy

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Citizenship-based Taxation and FATCA

Published May 11, 2016 - Follow author Allison: - Permalink

I am occasionally asked for a list of the things I've written or presented about FATCA and citizenship-based taxation, and decided I may as well post it here. I have a newer article on the adoption of the IGA in Canada, will post that soon and add to this list.

On the personal impact of CBT/FATCA:


Providing Legal Analysis of FATCA and the IGAs:
Videos and Podcasts:






Tagged as: citizenship FATCA scholarship tax policy

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Kadet and Koontz: Are US MNCs profit shifting their way to "accidental partnership" status?

Published May 04, 2016 - Follow author Allison: - Permalink

Jeffery Kadet and David Koontz have posted a new paper on SSRN entitled Profit-Shifting Structures and Unexpected Partnership Status, in which they argue that the way US-based MNCs share profits and risks with their global subsidiaries might actually result in their being in partnership with these companies for tax purposes, thus triggering interesting potential US tax consequences for the whole group.  Here is the abstract:
Many U.S.- and foreign-based MNCs that have implemented carefully researched tax strategies to reduce their income taxes are coming under increased scrutiny. Most MNC tax strategies involve businesses they conduct worldwide, but which are managed from the U.S. These strategies have several factors in common: 
(i) Companies established in tax havens or otherwise structured to attract little if any tax;
(ii) Intercompany agreements placing commercial risk and intangibles in such companies, thereby shifting profits to such companies;
(iii) Conduct of centralized activities and functions in the U.S. (in addition to group senior management), which are integral to and which critically benefit all MNC group members conducting that line of business (examples of such activities include product development, product sourcing, management of contract manufacturing process, management and control of internet platforms, etc.); and
(iv) No significant changes made to their business operations when tax strategies were implemented, meaning potentially that these structures lack economic substance.
This article suggests that in their haste to create these profit-shifting structures, the MNCs and their advisors may have overlooked two important weapons in the IRS’s arsenal to attack profit-shifting strategies. 
First, because of the centralized activities and functions within the U.S. that are integral to the business conducted by various group members (including both U.S. and foreign group members), an MNC may inadvertently create through its actions and intercompany contracts a partnership that is recognized solely for U.S. tax purposes. Once such a partnership exists for tax purposes, the various group members become its partners and the partnership conducts the applicable worldwide line of business. 
Secondly, because the partnership conducts a portion of its activities through U.S. offices and other facilities, the foreign group member partners are treated by statute as being engaged in a trade or business in the U.S. This makes them subject to U.S. taxation on their share of effectively connected income (ECI) earned by the partnership. U.S. taxation will be imposed at effective rates of 54.5% or higher. (The effective rate could be 38.25% or higher if a tax treaty applies.) 
In the absence of a partnership, whether a foreign group member is engaged in a U.S. trade or business is a factual determination that may be difficult for the IRS to establish. However, to their collective detriment, MNCs whose factual situations support the existence of a partnership that conducts such a U.S. trade or business have made it a slam-dunk for the IRS to conclude that the foreign group member partner is so engaged. The U.S. tax rules are clear – if a foreign corporation is a partner in a partnership engaged in a U.S. trade or business, then that partner will be so engaged. All MNCs with this general fact pattern and their auditors should re-examine existing profit shifting structures to determine if they could withstand an IRS charge asserting both the existence of a partnership and taxable ECI.
An interesting perspective and worth a read.

Tagged as: scholarship Tax law US

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Parada: Legal Questions Surrounding FATCA-based Agreements in Europe

Published Feb 08, 2016 - Follow author Allison: - Permalink

Leopoldo Parada has recently posted on SSRN an article published last summer in the World Tax Journal, entitled Intergovernmental Agreements and the Implementation of FATCA in Europe, of interest. Here is the abstract:

FATCA is a US domestic tax policy that requires Foreign Financial Institutions around the world to provide the IRS information regarding their US clients. Recognizing this extraterritorial characteristic and the troubles associated with it, the US Treasury Department developed the Intergovernmental Agreements (IGAs), which have served the double purpose of coordinating FATCA at an international level and influencing the new international standards on automatic exchange of information. Nevertheless, the IGAs are instruments that still need to be improved, at least in order to guarantee their successful implementation in Europe. The first part of this article explores the legal nature and the characteristic of the IGAs, concluding that they possess an asymmetriclegal nature that can lead to conflicts of interpretation. Likewise, it concludes that their contribution toward international transparency is incompatible with the existence of other instruments in Europe that seek the opposite goal of protecting bank secrecy, although it recognizes the importance of the most recent achievements at the European level in order to ensure a coherent and consistent system of automatic exchange of information. The second part of this article analyses three grey areas in the IGAs implementation process in Europe (i.e., “quoted Eurobonds” in the United Kingdom; group requests under the Switzerland-United States IGA, and the “coordination timing” provision of the IGA Model 1A), concluding that there is still work to be done in order for the IGAs to grant an acceptable level of reciprocity in practice.
I was not aware of this article when I wrote on a column last fall on this very same topic, in which I called the IGAs "Hybrid Tax Agreements" and pointed out the mess created by their unprecedented legal form as treaties to the rest of the world but administrative guidance in the United States. Parada's article goes further in the analysis and lays out a number of enduring difficulties. It seems to me that governments are simply ignoring these difficult issues as inconvenient barriers to desired outcomes and courts will face the same temptation. But I don't think these issues go away with time and gradual acceptance of FATCA as an institution. Instead, I think the issue will cause systemic problems going forward, both in terms of raising endless conflicts of law, and in terms of the precedent set for international tax relations by the failure of states to challenge US exceptionalism even as it tramples on law and legal process throughout the world.

Tagged as: FATCA IGAs international law scholarship

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Please Give: Passionate Plea for IRS Funding from Former IRS Commissioners

Published Nov 11, 2015 - Follow author Allison: - Permalink

The IRS faces constant funding pressure from Congress, despite becoming a victim of constant mission creep thanks to Congressional mandates (ACA and FATCA in particular). Over the years many have pled with Congress to stop underfunding the agency. The latest comes from seven former commissioners, who note that not least among the reasons to fund the IRS is the need to spend money on cyber security as the IRS fends off one million hacking attempts each week.

That's a lot of hacking because of course the payload is enormous. FATCA has surely expanded the payload significantly by developing an enormous database of personal information attached to bank account numbers and detailed account activity on a global scale. Even a small breach of security with respect to that vault will be disastrous for the taxpayers involved.

The commissioners also suggest that the IRS workload is going to increase due to BEPS. BEPS is expected to result in more treaty-based conflicts among jurisdictions, so I expect more competent authority hours will be needed. But it's likely also the case that country-by-country reporting requirements will add another enormous treasure trove of information to the database, further increasing the payload.

At minimum, Congress has simply got to fund security for this massively expanding taxpayer information database.

November 9, 2015

The Honorable Thad Cochran
Chairman
Committee on Appropriations
United States Senate
113 Dirksen Senate Office Building
Washington, D.C. 20510

The Honorable Harold Rogers
Chairman
U.S. House Committee on Appropriations
U.S. House of Representatives
2406 Rayburn House Office Building
Washington D.C. 20515

The Honorable Barbara A. Mikulski
Vice Chairwoman
Committee on Appropriations
United States Senate
503 Hart Senate Office Building
Washington, D.C. 20510

The Honorable Nita M. Lowey
Ranking Member
U.S. House Committee on Appropriations
U.S. House of Representatives
2365 Rayburn House Office Building
Washington, D.C. 20515 
Subject: IRS Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2016
Dear Chairman Cochran, Vice Chairwoman Mikulski, Chairman Rogers and Ranking Member Lowey: 
We are all former Commissioners of the Internal Revenue Service. Over the last fifty years we served during the administrations of Presidents John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush, William J. Clinton, and George W. Bush.

We are writing to express our great concern about the proposed reductions by the House and Senate in appropriations for the Internal Revenue Service for the current fiscal year that will end on September 30, 2016. We understand that the Appropriations Committees in the House and Senate have proposed to reduce the FY 2015 IRS appropriation of $10.9 billion by $838 million and $470 million, respectively, for the current fiscal year. If Congress were to reduce the IRS appropriation for the current year, it would represent yet another reduction in the IRS appropriation. The appropriations reductions for the IRS over the last five years total $1.2 billion, more than a 17% cut from the IRS appropriation for 2010. None of us ever experienced, nor are we aware of, any IRS appropriations reductions of this magnitude over such a prolonged period of time. The impact on the IRS of these reductions is that the IRS has lost approximately 15,000 full-time employees through attrition over the last five years, with more losses likely in the current fiscal year unless Congress reverses the funding trend. These staffing reductions come at a time when the IRS workforce is aging, with nearly 52% of IRS employees now over the age of 50 and 24% already eligible to retire. Three years from now, 38% of IRS employees will be eligible to retire. This loss of IRS knowledge and experience is alarming, particularly in light of the fact that, out of a present workforce of about 85,000 employees, the IRS has only about 3,400 employees under the age of 30 and only 384 employees under the age of 25 due to hiring freezes for budgetary reasons at the IRS since 2010 and periodically from 2005 to 2010. Over the last fifty years, none of us has ever witnessed anything like what has happened to the IRS appropriations over the last five years and the impact these appropriations reductions are having on our tax system.

These reductions in IRS appropriations are difficult to understand in light of the fact that, at the same time these reductions have occurred, the Congress repeatedly has passed major tax legislation to substantially increase the IRS workload. Most recently the Congress passed the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, two major new programs, each of which significantly expands the IRS' tax administration burdens. The IRS personnel reductions come at a time when the IRS is stretched to the breaking point to cope with tax enforcement challenges attributable to global and domestic changes that are impacting our tax system. Increasingly, the United States is facing tax challenges as the result of efforts that are taking place in the international tax arena to deal with the tax non-compliance that is accompanying the continued globalization of business and investment activities. The most recent tax changes to address international tax non-compliance are proposed in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Report. Regardless of one's view of these proposed changes, it is clear that the IRS will be substantially impacted by changes and challenges of other countries who adopt them.

Additionally, increasing incidents of identity theft and refund fraud are being perpetrated against our tax system by large, sophisticated organized crime syndicates around the world. These criminals seek to file false returns and claim fraudulent refunds using personal taxpayer data obtained from sources outside the IRS. At the same time, many unlicensed, unregulated return preparers are preparing and filing fraudulent tax refund returns. Every time there is an information technology hacking event in the public or private sectors in which Social Security numbers are stolen, the likelihood exists for additional identity theft and refund fraud. The growing refund fraud challenge to our tax system is especially alarming to us because of the need, which is fundamental to our tax system, for the IRS to be able to assure taxpayers who are paying their fair share of taxes that other taxpayers are doing the same thing. To emphasize the seriousness of refund fraud, the Government Accountability Office earlier this year placed identity theft and refund fraud on its list of "high risk areas" in the federal government, a sure sign to each of us that the IRS should have more, not fewer, enforcement resources to deal with this threat to the integrity of our tax system,

To place the impact on our tax system of the Congressional IRS appropriations reductions over the last five years in its proper context, Congress almost annually over the last 25 years has passed legislation that has imposed additional burdens on IRS tax collection and administration under our revenue laws. During this time, the Congress also repeatedly added more and more socio-economic incentives to the tax code and called upon the IRS to administer these new socio-economic programs, including healthcare, retirement, social welfare, education, energy, housing, and economic stimulus programs, none of which is related to the principal job of the IRS to collect revenue. At the same time, Congress passed even more legislation to pay for these tax spending programs. The result is that almost 30 years after the 1986 Tax Reform Act, our tax laws are a mess. Our tax laws have become so difficult for taxpayers to understand that 80% of all individual taxpayers now use paid consultants or software to prepare their income tax returns. Because of insufficient IRS resources in FY 2015, an average of more than 60 percent of the taxpayers who called the IRS for assistance in preparing their returns during the last filing season were unable to reach an IRS assistor, even after many taxpayers had remained on the telephone for more than 30 minutes before they were automatically cut off because of the volume of calls, which the reduced numbers of IRS assistors were unable to handle. Equally serious are the cybersecurity threats illustrated by the problem that occurred earlier this year involving unauthorized attempts to access taxpayer information using the IRS' Get Transcript online application. Separately, the IRS continues to experience about one million attempts each week to hack into its main information technology systems. Although the IRS has so far successfully thwarted these attacks and its main systems remain secure, all of this astonishes us and emphasizes to each of us that the IRS taxpayer assistance and IRS information technology resources are severely underfunded, especially when compared to the increasing cybersecurity budgets of private sector companies.

It is clear to each of us that the IRS appropriations reductions over the last five years materially and adversely affect the ability of the IRS to assist taxpayers who are trying to comply with their tax obligations, as well as the ability of the IRS to detect and deter taxpayers who have not complied with their tax obligations. Recently, we understand that the IRS estimated a direct annual revenue loss to the Federal government in tax enforcement at $6 billion last year and $8 billion this year, due to such appropriations reductions. Historically, for every dollar invested in IRS tax enforcement, the United States received $4 or more in return, and we understand that continues to be true today.

The Congressional Budget Office in its June 2015 Long-Term Budget Outlook projected future fiscal challenges to the United States because of the large and increasing size of our national debt and rising future operating deficits attributable to an aging U.S. population and rising healthcare costs. It, therefore, is imperative that our tax system in the future operate at an optimal level in order to maximize the revenues the IRS collects. For that to happen, the IRS must be able to assist taxpayers who are trying to comply with their tax obligations, and at the same time be able to enforce the tax laws against those taxpayers who have not complied with their tax obligations. In short, because of our country's fiscal and other challenges, our tax system must work and work well to collect the taxes that are owed.

Some have argued that the IRS can solve these problems by simply becoming more efficient. This argument ignores the reality that the IRS is already, by far, the most efficient tax collection agency among large countries in the world. The OECD recently released its bi-annual analysis of tax administration across the developed world and reported, based on 2013 statistics which don't reflect the most recent IRS budget cuts, that the amount the IRS spends to collect a dollar in taxes is approximately half the average amount spent by all OECD countries. Germany, France, England, Canada and Australia all spend as much as two to three times the amount the IRS does to collect a dollar of revenue.

In light of the foregoing, we fail to understand how it makes any logical sense to continue to reduce, rather than increase, the IRS budget for FY 2016 in order to optimize the IRS' ability to provide taxpayer service and to enforce the tax laws to increase revenue collections. To put it succinctly, we do not understand why anyone with present and projected debts and annual losses as large as those of the United States would refuse to pay for telephone assistance to people trying to fulfill their tax obligations, would turn their back on $8 billion annually in additional revenue, or would fail to make an investment that offers a return equal to at least four times the amount invested. For these reasons, we respectfully call upon each of you to support and work to accomplish the passage of an IRS appropriations request for FY 2016 that is substantially in excess of the appropriation for the IRS in FY 2015.

Mortimer M. Caplin (1961-64)

Sheldon S. Cohen (1965-69)

Lawrence B. Gibbs (1986-89)

Fred T. Goldberg, Jr. (1989-92)

Shirley D. Peterson (1992-93)

Margaret M. Richardson (1993-97)

Charles O. Rossotti (1997-2002)

Tagged as: FATCA governance information institutions IRS US

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Kadet on Profit Shifting: The Approach Everyone Forgets

Published Oct 14, 2015 - Follow author Allison: - Permalink

Over the summer, Jeffery Kadet published an article of interest, Attacking Profit Shifting: The Approach Everyone Forgets, in which he argues that the IRS has the ability, as yet not exercised, to attack profit shifting by US-based MNCs using nothing more than the domestic "effectively connected income" rules. Here is the abstract:

In recent years the financial press has turned increasing attention to MNCs that shift income to low taxed jurisdictions overseas in order to avoid US taxation. What’s generally missing from these discussions is any serious focus on possible IRS attacks on these companies, most of which are CFCs. There’s little apparent concern by anyone that the IRS will try to disallow the profit-shifting structures that have moved so much taxable income out of the US and other countries and into low-taxed foreign jurisdictions. 
This is changing. Early this year Caterpillar Inc. in an SEC filing disclosed that the IRS had issued a Revenue Agent’s Report to currently tax certain income earned by one of its Swiss entities. Presumably this is income earned as a result of a certain restructuring conducted in the late 1990s and referred to as the Swiss Tax Strategy when examined in 2014 in hearings held by the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (PSI). 
The IRS basis for its RAR, as disclosed by Caterpillar, is application of the ‘substance-over-form’ or ‘assignment-of-income’ judicial doctrines. This, however, is not the only approach that the IRS might have chosen to impose taxation on the shifted profits. 
Various Congressional hearing documents, the work of investigative journalists, and other sources (all publicly available) provide evidence that the businesses within some profit-shifting structures continue to be managed and substantially conducted from the U.S. and not from any business locations outside the U.S. Where this is the case, the IRS may have a strong case for imposing direct taxation on the effectively connected income (ECI) of these low-taxed foreign subsidiaries. 
Just the threat of imposing direct taxation may cause many MNCs to consider scaling back their profit shifting and for them and their outside auditors to start worrying about exposure on prior years. If the IRS were to sustain such direct taxation, it would mean: 
• The regular up-to-35% corporate tax, 
• The ‘branch profits tax’ applied at a flat 30% rate (unless lower by treaty), 
• A loss of deductions and credits for any tax year if the foreign corporation has not filed Form 1120-F for that year, and 
• An open statute of limitations on IRS assessment of tax for any tax year if the foreign corporation has never filed a US tax return on Form 1120-F for that year. 
The combined effect of the above is a 54.5% or higher effective tax rate (lower if tax treaty coverage reduces the 30% branch profits tax rate). 
Considering these terribly high effective tax rate percentages, where the IRS chooses to examine for possible ECI and develops a credible case, they can use the high effective tax rate as strong leverage to secure agreement for reversal of profit shifting structures. Such agreements would presumably see MNCs agreeing to current taxation within U.S. group members of the shifted profits that had originally been booked in low-taxed foreign subsidiaries. 
To demonstrate how significant ECI likely exists within many MNCs that have conducted profit-shifting planning, this article includes a number of realistic examples inspired by the above-mentioned publicly available information on MNC profit-shifting structures. 
Recognizing that it can sometimes be a challenge to apply the very old existing regulations to current business models, the article strongly encourages Treasury to prioritize the issuance of modernized income sourcing and ECI regulations that reflect the business models and structures now commonly used and that are often found in profit-shifting structures.

Tagged as: corporate tax IRS scholarship tax policy US

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