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Today at McGill: Tillotson on the Citizen-Taxpayer and the Rise of Canadian Democracy

Published Nov 06, 2017 - Follow author Allison Christians: - Permalink

On Monday November 6, Shirley Tillotson of Dalhousie University will present her new book,  Give and Take: The Citizen-Taxpayer and the Rise of Canadian Democracy, as part of the annual Spiegel Sohmer Tax Policy Colloquium at McGill Law.

The tax policy colloquium at McGill is supported by a grant made by the law firm Spiegel Sohmer, Inc., for the purpose of fostering an academic community in which learning and scholarship may flourish. The land on which we gather is the traditional territory of the Kanien’keha:ka (Mohawk), a place which has long served as a site of meeting and exchange amongst nations.

This fall, in celebration of the centennial anniversary of the introduction of federal income taxation in Canada, the Colloquium focuses on the historical significance and development, as well as the most recent challenges, of the modern tax system in Canada and around the world. The complete colloquium schedule is here.

The Colloquium is convened by Allison Christians, H. Heward Stikeman Chair in Taxation Law. 

Shirley Tillotson's talk will take place from 2:35-5:35pm in New Chancellor Day Hall Room 101, 3644 Peel Ave, Montreal. All are welcome to attend.

Tagged as: colloquium history McGill tax policy



Monday at McGill: Pichhadze on Transfer Pricing and GAAR in Canada

Published Oct 21, 2017 - Follow author Allison Christians: - Permalink

On Monday October 23, Amir Pichhadze, Lecturer at Deakin University, Australia, will present his work in progress, entitled "Canada’s Federal Income Tax Act: the need for a principle (policy) based approach to legislative (re)drafting of Canada’s transfer pricing rule" as part of the annual Spiegel Sohmer Tax Policy Colloquium at McGill Law.

Pichhadze's new paper builds on his prior work with Reuven Avi-Yonah on GAARs and the nexus between statutory interpretation and legislative drafting and draws on insights from Judith Freedman's work on the topic of legislative intention in statutory interpretation. The working draft explores the evolution of arm's length transfer pricing in Canada and makes the case for Canada’s parliament to adopt and apply a more explicit principle/policy-based approach to legislative drafting. It argues that Canada’s courts cannot effectively distill relevant policies and principles unless they are clearly conveyed by parliament, using Australia's experience as relevant and constructive.

The tax policy colloquium at McGill is supported by a grant made by the law firm Spiegel Sohmer, Inc., for the purpose of fostering an academic community in which learning and scholarship may flourish. The land on which we gather is the traditional territory of the Kanien’keha:ka (Mohawk), a place which has long served as a site of meeting and exchange amongst nations.

This fall, in celebration of the centennial anniversary of the introduction of federal income taxation in Canada, the Colloquium focuses on the historical significance and development, as well as the most recent challenges, of the modern tax system in Canada and around the world. The complete colloquium schedule is here.

The Colloquium is convened by Allison Christians, H. Heward Stikeman Chair in Taxation Law. 

Amir Pichhadze's talk will take place from 2:35-5:35pm in New Chancellor Day Hall Room 101, 3644 Peel Ave, Montreal. All are welcome to attend.

Tagged as: Canada colloquium McGill scholarship tax policy transfer pricing



Some Recent Scholarship on Tax and Human Rights

Published Feb 28, 2017 - Follow author Allison Christians: - Permalink

I've posted on SSRN a new work in progress and two recently published works on the topic of taxation and human rights:

Human Rights at the Borders of Tax Sovereignty

Tax scholarship typically presumes the state’s power to tax and therefore rarely concerns itself with analyzing which relationships between a government and a potential taxpayer normatively justify taxation, and which do not. This paper presents the case for undertaking such an analysis as a matter of the state’s obligation to observe and protect fundamental human rights. It begins by examining existing frameworks for understanding how a taxpayer population is and ought to be defined. It then analyzes potential harms created by an improperly expansive taxpayer category, and those created by excluding from consideration those beyond the polity even if directly impacted by the tax regime. It concludes that a modified membership principle is a more acceptable framework for normative analysis of the jurisdiction to tax, even while acknowledging the overwhelming weight of existing perceptions about the bounds of the polity and the state-citizen relationship as significant barriers to acceptance.
Taxpayer Rights in Canada
Canada is one of many countries where taxpayer rights are becoming an increasingly common topic of discourse among policymakers, practitioners, and the public. Especially in light of recent developments regarding the global expansion of taxpayer information exchange, the role of taxpayer privacy and confidentiality rights have emerged as significant legal issues. This chapter surveys the contemporary theoretical, legal, and political landscape of taxpayer rights in Canada. Part I outlines the theoretical and legal sources from which taxpayers may be said to have rights. Part II examines Canada’s Taxpayer Bill of Rights and considers some of the historical, legal, and political issues that give rise to their core principles. Part III focuses in on the taxpayer’s right to privacy and confidentiality in the context of evolving global trends surrounding the use and exchange of taxpayer information. The Chapter concludes with some observations about where taxpayer rights may be headed in Canada.
Taxpayer Rights in the United States
Despite abundant sources of legal and quasi-legal protection against abuses of individual rights and freedoms, there are areas of contention regarding respect for taxpayer rights in the United States. This chapter lays out the framework of taxpayer rights and considers their meaning by considering a contemporary case, namely, the recent expansion of citizenship-based taxation through globally enforced financial asset reporting and information exchange. Part I outlines the theoretical and legal sources from which taxpayers may be said to have rights. Part II examines the US Taxpayer Bill of Rights and considers some of the historical, legal, and political issues that give rise to their core principles. Part III focuses in on the taxpayer’s right to be informed in the context of citizenship-based taxation in a globalized world. The Chapter concludes with some observations about where taxpayer rights may be headed in the United States.

Tagged as: fairness justice scholarship sovereignty tax policy



Spiegel Sohmer Tax Policy Colloquium at McGill Law

Published Sep 28, 2015 - Follow author Allison Christians: - Permalink

McGill Law's annual Speigel Sohmer Tax Policy Colloquium kicks off today with a presentation by Roseanne Altshuler on the viability of a switch from worldwide to territorial corporate taxation in the United States. This year's colloquium will focus on the fundamentals of corporate tax policy by critically examining issues in national and international tax policy. Today's talk will take place from 14:30-17:30pm in Room 202 of New Chancellor Day Hall, 3644 Peel Ave, Montreal. Students, faculty and the McGill community in Montreal are welcome to attend.

Here is the colloquium line-up for the fall:

Monday, September 28: Rosanne Altshuler

Rosanne Altshuler is Dean of Social and Behavioral Science and a Professor of Economics at Rutgers University. She was the Chair of the Department of Economics at Rutgers from 2011 to 2015. She has written widely on federal tax policy, including her most recent article “Lessons the United States Can Learn from Other Countries’ Territorial Systems for Taxing Income of Multinational Corporations.”

Monday, October 5: Steven Dean

Steven Dean is a Professor at Brooklyn Law School and a specialist in tax law. His research addresses a range of tax and budgetary issues, including unconventional solutions to problems such as tax havens, regulatory complexity and tax shelters. His recent article, “Tax Deregulation,” considered the surprising implications of enhancing taxpayer autonomy.

Monday, November 2: Richard Murphy

Richard Murphy is a chartered accountant and economist. He is the founder of the Tax Justice Network and the director of Tax Research LLP, which undertakes work on tax policy, advocacy and research. Mr. Murphy is the co-author of several publications on tax policy, including his most recent book, “Over Here and Undertaxed: Multinationals, Tax Avoidance and You.”

Tuesday, November 10: Daniel N. Shaviro

Daniel Shaviro is a Professor of Taxation at the New York University School of Law. Professor Shaviro has written several books examining tax policy, budget policy and entitlements issues. His most recent book, “Fixing US International Taxation,” offers an analytical framework for international tax policy that sidesteps the standard worldwide taxation vs. territorial taxation framework.

Monday, November 23: Kim Brooks

Kim Brooks is Dean and Weldon Professor of Law at the Schulich School of Law, Dalhousie University. Dean Brooks’ research focuses on corporate and international tax law and policy. She focuses on using a discrete area of tax law to understand a larger tax concept, and using the tax system to promote international economic justice. Dean Brooks has written widely on tax treaties and international taxation, including her recent chapter, “The Troubling Role of Tax Treaties” in the volume 51 of “Tax Design Issues Worldwide: A Series on International Taxation.”

Monday, November 30: Albert Baker

Albert Baker is the Global Leader in Tax Policy at Deloitte & Touche LLP, where he specializes in international tax, including mergers and acquisitions, corporate financing and corporate reorganizations. His recent research focuses on base erosion & profit shifting, a project to address concerns that current international tax frameworks result in double non-taxation, or stateless income, or reducing the tax base in high tax countries.

The Spiegel Sohmer Tax Policy Colloquium has been made possible by a generous grant from the law firm Spiegel Sohmer, Inc., Montreal, for the purpose of fostering an academic community in which learning and scholarship may flourish. I am delighted to welcome these distinguished guests and look forward to today's discussion.

Tagged as: colloquium corporate tax McGill scholarship tax policy



This Fall at McGill: Colloquium on Tax Philosophy

Published Sep 12, 2014 - Follow author Allison Christians: - Permalink

I am pleased to announce that the annual McGill tax policy colloquium is now being generously supported by the law firm Spiegel Sohmer, Inc., under a grant established for the purpose of fostering an academic community in which learning and scholarship may flourish.

This fall, in its inaugural instalment, the Spiegel Sohmer Tax Policy Colloquium will return to tax policy fundamentals by critically examining the goals of taxation from a law and philosophy perspective.

The Colloquium will therefore be convened jointly by myself and Daniel Weinstock, who is the James McGill Professor in the Faculty of Law and Director of the McGill Institute for Health and Social Policy.  His research explores the governance of certain types of liberal democracies, and the effects of religious and cultural diversity from an ethical perspective on the political and ethical philosophy of public policy.

Each talk takes place in the Seminar Room, Institute for Health and Social Policy, 1130 Pine Ave, from 14:35 to 17:35.  These events are free and open to everyone. We welcome students, faculty and the general public to attend. Here is the line-up:

Monday, October 6: Wayne Norman, Mike and Ruth Mackowski Professor of Ethics, Kenan Institute for Ethics and Department of Philosophy, Duke University. His work focuses on business ethics and his published work includes numerous books and journal articles, as well as contributions to “Ethics for Adversaries: How to Play Fair When You’re Playing to Win.”

Monday, October 20: Joseph Heath, Professor in the Department of Philosophy and the School of Public Policy and Governance at the University of Toronto; Director of the University of Toronto Centre for Ethics. He has published work very widely including the recent book "Enlightenment 2.0: Restoring Sanity to Our Politics, Our Economy, and Our Lives."

Monday, October 27: Patrick Turmel, Professor in the Department of Philosophy, Laval University. His work focuses on ethics and political institutions, particularly cities. His publications include co-authorship of a book titled “La Juste Part: Repenser les Inégalités, la Richesse et la Fabrication des Grille-Pains.”

Monday, November 11: Martin O’Neill, Senior Lecturer in Moral and Political Philosophy, Department of Politics, University of York, U.K. His research examines global and intergenerational justice. Among his many publications, Professor O’Neill’s most recent book is “Property-Owning Democracy: Rawls and Beyond.”

Monday, November 17: Peter Dietsch, Professor, Department of Philosophy, Université de Montréal. He works on questions of distributive justice with particular emphasis on the application of philosophical theories through social instruments including the tax system. His work is widely published, including a recent article titled “Tax Competition and Global Background Justice” in The Journal of Political Philosophy. He is also working on a book on tax competition entitled “Catching Capital”.

I am looking forward to hearing what these pre-eminent philosophers can tell us about the state of contemporary tax policy theory. Over the course of the semester it is my hope that we can develop a framework for thinking about tax policy that responds to the world in which we find ourselves today, with all of its promises and challenges for democracy, economy, and identity.

Tagged as: McGill philosophy scholarship tax policy



Diane Ring on The Influence of Experts

Published Apr 28, 2014 - Follow author Allison Christians: - Permalink

Diane Ring has a post up over at Jotwell reviewing Mai'a Cross' Rethinking Epistemic Communities Twenty Years Later, which was published last year. Professor Ring says:

Rethinking Epistemic Communities emerges from one broad strand of IR theory, cognitivism, which explores how we know what we want, what we value, and what we seek. That is, even if much of international relations activity concerns the use of power and/or bargaining games to secure “desired” outcomes, how do countries and other key actors determine what they want? Certainly in some cases the parameters of what a country seeks to achieve may seem relatively clear, but in many others the outcome or at least its particular form, is less obvious. 
...As Cross articulates, the study of epistemic communities, particularly in the context of transnational global governance highlights how both state actors and the increasingly important non-state actors are affected by epistemic communities and the constructions of norms, goals, and shared understandings. She acknowledges certain criticisms of the concept but sees them not so much as a constraint on further research but rather a road map of the important questions that future scholarship should address.
Head over to jotwell to read the rest.

Tagged as: expertise institutions international law scholarship tax policy



The Shutdown and a Tea Party Tax Paradigm Shift: Guest Post by Marco Garofalo

Published Oct 14, 2013 - Follow author Allison Christians: - Permalink

One of the many benefits of hosting a tax policy colloquium is that the students become deeply engaged in grappling with tax policy principles through contemporary scholarship, and they apply these ideas to the world in which they find themselves. After our recent presentations by Reuven Avi-Yonah on the shifting pressures of globalization on the tax base, by Clifton Fleming on the politics of tax expenditure analysis, and by Lyne LaTulippe on the topic of tax competition, in which she introduced us to work by the political scientist Mark Blyth, one of my students came back with the following analysis of tax politics in the US, and he agreed to share it here.

Government Shutdown and a Tea Party-Induced Tax Policy Paradigm Shift in the United States

A paradigm shift in tax policy may be unfolding in the United States, as the Tea Party positions itself differently than either the Democrats or the Republicans when it comes to important aspects of tax policy processes and practices.  In a recent article, "Paradigms and Paradox: The Politics of Economic Ideas in Two Moments of Crisis," Mark Blyth investigated why we did not see a paradigm shift in economic policy after the financial crisis of 2008. He argues that paradigm shifts are usually:

  1. triggered by failures in the current paradigm; 
  2. accompanied by a new paradigm that is waiting in the wings to replace the current one; and 
  3. driven by a change in who can speak authoritatively on the subject.
He concluded that “it is politics, not economics, and it is authority, not facts, that matter for both paradigm maintenance and change.” Consequently, he argues that we did not see a paradigm shift after the financial crisis for a few reasons. First, even though there was a failure of the current paradigm, there was no challenger waiting to replace it. To illustrate his point, Blyth suggests that it was inconceivable that the Washington Consensus would be replaced by the Beijing Consensus, “so complete was its initial victory.” Second, the sudden policy failure did not result in a change of who speaks authoritatively on the subject, as protagonists did not change (individuals in the US Treasury, the ECB, and the IMF all retained their authority) and thus their solutions did not either. Blyth calls this ‘disciplinary incentive’; in other words, “too many careers and institutions are at stake!” Thus the financial crisis did not spur a paradigm shift.

But consider the Tea Party and its crusade. Since 2009, the Tea Party has been an unavoidable presence in US politics. While the Tea Party story has many permutations, causes, and manifestations, only the current government shutdown is important for the purposes of the current discussion. The current shutdown is not about Republicans versus Democrats; it is about the Tea Party versus Republicans. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act passed in Congress, was upheld by the Supreme Court of the United States, and its funding was not seriously contested by the Republican Party. This is an artificial crisis, a main architect of which appears to be Jim DeMint, former US Senator and current President of the Heritage Foundation.  If non-Tea Party GOP members do not want to play along, the implicit threat, according to Joshua Green of Bloomberg Businessweek, is that the Tea Party will turn on them, such as by launching “attack ads calling [Republican Senator Mitch] McConnell a ‘turncoat’ who ‘surrendered to Barack Obama’ in the healthcare fight."  So far, the Tea Party is pulling off this political coup: the government is shut down and positions are becoming entrenched.

Now consider this political impasse as a paradigm shift. First, we have a failure in the current paradigm (even though it is artificial). Joshua Green argues that “What’s causing the malfunction is a battle within the GOP.”  Second, we have a paradigm waiting in the wings to replace the current one. In fact, the Tea Party is not so much waiting to replace the Republicans as forcing that to happen. Third, the loci of authority in the Republican Party are shifting, either to Tea Party members or to the remaining GOP members who agree to change their tune. Hence we may see a paradigm shift, in which the Tea Party becomes the dominant faction in the Republican Party, resulting in a recalibration of the Democrat-Republican relationship.

Such a paradigm shift would have serious implications for tax policy. At least two would arise immediately, in the areas of tax expenditure analysis and tax consultations. First, tax expenditure analysis may begin to play a greater role. While the Republicans and Democrats function largely by dressing government spending as tax credits and deductions, the Tea Party is having none of that. The prime example would be the current crisis. The current government shutdown is itself a tax issue: the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, SCOTUS cogently reminds us, is a piece of tax policy. If the Tea Party does become the dominant Republican faction, then tax expenditure analysis may take center stage as a tool to sniff out government spending in all of its forms.

Second, the structure and content of tax consultations could change. Professor LaTulippe argues that international tax policy is beholden to a discourse of competitiveness (draft forthcoming). While part of the competitiveness discourse is about low rates, which the Tea Party presumably likes, part of the discourse is about tax expenditures, which the Tea Party would not like. Currently, tax consultations perpetuate this discourse by giving short time frames for the private sector to contribute to proposed tax reforms, with the result that a certain class of participants (accountants and lawyers) is greatly advantaged in giving feedback and achieving client-favored tax policy results. With the Tea Party paradigm, that policy loop could be disrupted, as this recent article suggests.

A paradigm shift in US politics is not certain. Any number of things could happen, including the Republican Party standing up to and beating the Tea Party. If that were to happen, then tax policy commentators should be concerned about the issues described above. Maybe once the dust settles we will meet the new boss, same as the old boss. But the current government shutdown (and impending sovereign debt default deadline) exhibits signs of a paradigm shift.  Something fundamental does seem to be changing on the small government side of political discourse. As such, we should stay tuned to the implications for tax policy.

Tagged as: political malfunction politics scholarship tax policy u.s.



Recent Scholarship of Note on Normative and Practical Challenges in Corporate Taxation

Published Sep 18, 2013 - Follow author Allison Christians: - Permalink

Yariv Brauner recently posted "Whither Choice of Entity," in which he examines choice of entity and policy implications in support of the repeal of corporate taxation, or failing that, a redefining of corporate residence to move toward source-based taxation, preferably with formulary apportionment. He provides a comprehensive picture of the ongoing chaos created by entity classification and residence assignment rules. Brauner correctly mourns the lack of normative principles underlying the differential taxation of entities, which he attributes to the "unorganized thinking" that characterizes much of the discussion about how choice of entity rules impact people's business choices, and the general messiness of policy-making as it evolves haphazardly through lobbying and political posturing.  He concludes:

In light of the incredible variety of options beyond mere incorporation or non-incorporations, one must wonder why tax law uses corporate or private law as the baseline for the application of its rules. Most importantly, why do we attribute importance to the act of incorporation? ...[T]here is nothing particularly special about businesses that carry a piece of paper stating that they are incorporated. A legal response to that may not be very feasible. We do not have a satisfactory legal answer to the central question: why do we tax corporations separately when only humans bear the burden of such taxation.
...The most obvious lesson is that the potentially negative impact of the corporate income tax on our tax system goes beyond the complexity it imposes on our tax system, and even beyond its negative political implications. In that, it reinforces the conclusion that the first-best step in a reform must include the elimination of the corporate income tax as a firm-level tax, perhaps replacing it with a withholding mechanism to preserve the efficacy of corporations as revenue collecting devices, or with other proxy solutions, such as mark-to-market taxation of public corporations only. 
Another solution... may be to replace the current residence based taxation of entities that relies exclusively on corporate personhood with an alternative, more substantive tax regime. This could be an increasingly source-based rather than residence-based tax regime, yet such a reform faces several difficulties, including the need to retain residence as a primary determinant of taxation, the difficulty of identifying the source of income, the difficulty of asserting a fairness-based tax base division between source and residence once established, etc. A better solution would be to adopt formulary taxation that relies on agreement between competing jurisdictions rather than false pseudo-economic notions. 
Henry Ordower verifies Yariv's concerns and takes a related approach in Preserving the Corporate Tax Base Through TaxTransparency, in which he states:
When, where, and at what rate to tax the income of business entities are the fundamental questions for the corporate income tax. Answers to those questions should remain independent of the taxpayer’s choice of business form, because one may achieve identical revenue outcomes with entity opacity or transparency. When the answers to those questions vary with business form and tax system structure, opportunities to arbitrage those differences across national borders and diminish or avoid tax on the corporate in- come inevitably emerge.
Tax professionals, administrators, academics, economists, and business participants may and often do disagree on whether a corporation’s (or other business entity’s) income from the operation of its business should be taxable to the corporation itself or taxable to its owners. Opinions also may diverge on whether to tax investment income differently from income from the operation of a business. Despite those disagreements, as long as there is to be an income tax, all will agree that the choice of one business form over another should not result in income from business operations escaping income tax completely.
Similarly, income should be subject to tax primarily where the taxpayer produces income from the operation of a business. Taxing income where the taxpayer’s principal office or seat of management happens to be makes sense only under a system that taxes residents and citizens on their worldwide incomes (a global model of taxation like the United States has) and then only secondarily to the place of income production in order to prevent taxpayers from gaining an advantage by placing their income in low-tax jurisdictions. 
...[A] wholly transparent income tax system would improve existing corporate tax systems and establish tax neutrality between entities currently subject to the corporate income tax and those that are not. Full transparency is consistent with international treaty obligations and simultaneously eliminates many international tax arbitrage opportunities. Business needs rather than tax benefits would drive choice of business form. If accompanied by a robust system of international apportionment of business income, a fully transparent corporate income tax would eliminate most income allocation arbitrage as well as tax system structure arbitrage opportunities.
Read them both to get a good sense of the history, evolution, and ongoing challenges facing corporate income taxation.

Tagged as: MNCs scholarship Tax law tax policy



Recent academic scholarship on FATCA

Published May 01, 2013 - Follow author Allison Christians: - Permalink

It seems to me that academic attention to FATCA is on the rise. Here is a roundup of recent lectures & publications by law professors (and one student):

Steven Dean delivered a lecture at the University of Antwerp entitled FATCA's Unanswered Questions, description:
Like an asteroid passing close to Earth, the threat of FATCA's implementation has caused great anxiety and much activity. Despite the existence of important questions about FATCA's implementation, it has caused even some of the most reluctant foreign governments to embrace information reporting obligations. Tracing FATCA's origins offers useful insights regarding its likely effects. Even if it ultimately "misses" as a commitment device, FATCA will have a lasting impact on global tax administration.
Susan Morse published a reply to my article on the dubious legal pedigree of FATCA agreements, entitled Why FATCA Intergovermental Agreements Bind the U.S. Government, abstract:
Bilateral intergovernmental agreements (IGAs) relating to the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) and entered into by the U.S. government reduce the reach of FATCA's withholding tax regime, including the reach of that regime as applied to non-U.S. taxpayers. The validity of these IGAs has been questioned. Yet IGAs have a strong case for binding status as valid congressional-executive agreements or treaty-based agreements. In addition, regardless of IGAs’ status as international agreements, they should bind the U.S. government as valid administrative guidance.
Frederic Behrens (law student) published Using a Sledgehammer to Crack a Nut: Why FATCA Will Not Stand, abstract:

The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) became law in 2010 and is an important development in combatting income tax evasion. Under FATCA, American individual and corporate taxpayers must provide comprehensive information to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) regarding foreign bank accounts. In addition, a more controversial part of FATCA requires foreign banks to report directly to the IRS certain information about financial accounts held by American taxpayers. 
These drastic changes in American tax policy are alarming to the international financial community. International banks are forced to implement expensive compliance programs to satisfy the information reporting requirements. An increasing number of foreign financial institutions will no longer want any involvement with American citizens or investments. Furthermore, Americans living abroad might be forced to denounce their American citizenship in order to gain access to insurance and basic banking options.   
In response to the unilateral imposition of FATCA, foreign governments and banks may lobby for its repeal. This Comment examines factors in the global movement to repeal FATCA and suggests several workable solutions that would be agreeable to the United States and foreign nations. Specifically, this Comment suggests how investment income withholding and increased IRS enforcement actions are a better solution to prevent income tax evasion.

And Itai Grinburg delivered a new paper at NYU, entitled Emerging Countries and the Taxation of Offshore Accounts, abstract:
A new international regime in which financial institutions function as cross-border tax intermediaries is emerging. The contours of that regime will be established during a narrow window of opportunity over the span of the next few years. The resulting regime will have especially important consequences for emerging countries. A uniform, multilateral automatic information exchange system would improve both these jurisdictions’ ability to tax the offshore accounts of their residents and their capacity to tax certain domestic-source income from capital. 
Interestingly, multinational financial institutions’ and emerging countries’ concerns with the emerging international regime are largely aligned. As a result, they may find that they are improbable allies in the battle over taxing offshore accounts. With the G-20 as an agenda-setter and international financial law as the model, a governance structure for an automatic information exchange regime that could be useful to emerging countries’ tax administrations and lower multinational financial institutions’ compliance costs could materialize. The paper explores the necessary architecture, as well as steps emerging countries may take to help that architecture develop.
Many different perspectives emerging. Have I missed any recent scholarship? Please do bring it to my attention if so.

Tagged as: FATCA scholarship



Tax, Law and Development

Published Feb 06, 2013 - Follow author Allison Christians: - Permalink

Yariv Brauner and Miranda Stewart have posted their introductory chapter to Tax, Law and Development, a book to which I am contributing with a chapter on global tax activism.  Here is the abstract:

This book is the first collection of independent legal scholarship exploring the relationship between tax, law and the quest for human development. While acknowledging fully the challenge of tax competition in a global economy, this book rejects calls to end taxation of mobile capital even if this may be perceived to be a theoretical economic inevitability due to the difficulty of collection in an uncooperative environment. New approaches to economic development suggest we must abandon – or significantly downplay – the dominant normative approaches to tax policy, replacing these with contextualized, diverse, partial and incremental tax law reform approaches that take seriously the legal, social and political context. The innovative scholars who contribute to this book examine the role of law in national and international tax regimes across a range of topical tax issues, from the perspective of countries including China, Brazil, South Africa, India and the United States. Chapters discuss the reform of tax laws that are central to economic globalization, including tax incentives for foreign direct investment, their relationship with tax treaties and other international tax law, the problem of how to address fundamental equity concerns, and institutions of budgeting, tax law making and administration in a global era.
They conclude:
The variety of chapters presented in this book forcefully demonstrate the deep need and the wealth of opportunities for progress in this avenue of study of tax, law and development. The primarily economic and ‘one size fits all’ focus of tax policy to date has not been sufficiently matched by detailed legal, historical and contextual policy analysis that can fortify and enrich it, supporting the implementation of tax reforms within real world social and legal structures. A range of alternative approaches to development arise out of the critique presented by the authors in this book and surveyed in this Introduction. The chapters call for a direct acknowledgement of the challenges and contradictions of tax law reform for development, and emphasize patience, diversity, a trial-and-error approach, transparency, legitimacy or ‘ownership’ and constant feedback and evaluation in tax reform approaches. Although less apparently streamlined and ‘correct’, these alternative approaches to tax, law and development do not imply a loss of focus, even if they are slow, difficult to implement, and lack the appeal of promised panacea. Moreover, they often require careful coordination within and between countries that does not exist in the current international tax regime. This new approach does, however, promise some actual success. The goal of this book is unashamedly idealistic, to serve as the foundation that would jump-start further scholarship, and support real change in the global and national tax laws for economic development.
I'm looking forward to seeing the book in print.

Tagged as: development globalization international law scholarship tax culture tax policy